Archives mensuelles : juillet 2015

Karl Popper on facts and conventions

The making of a decision, the adoption of a norm or of a standard, is a fact. But the norm or the standard which has been adopted, is not a fact. That most people agree with the norm `Thou shalt not steal’ is a sociological fact. But the norm `Thou shalt not steal’ is not a fact, and can never be inferred from sentences describing facts. (p. 61)

Popper, K. (2013). The open society and its enemies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (Original published 1945 in two volumes).

Rolf O. Kroger and Linda A. Wood on faking

… faking or response « distorsion » is a misleading concept because it implies that there is a « true » response that can be determined independently of the behavior of the test-taker. Because determining the true response is logically and empirically impossible, the concept of faking must be replaced by the concept of strategic action or the idea that the test-taker uses the test items to portray himself or herself as a certain kind of person on that occasion. (p. 1297)

Kroger, R. O., & Wood, L. A. (1993). Reification, « faking », and the Big Five. American Psychologist, 48, 1297-1298.